An electric current that reverses direction at regular intervals.
Unit of electric current.
Battery Electric Vehicle
Battery Electric Vehicle – A 100% battery-powered Electric Vehicle.
Charging an electric car’s battery with electricity.
The location where electric vehicles can be plugged in and charged, whether at home, work or in a publicly accessible location.
An element of infrastructure that safely supplies electric energy for the recharging of electric vehicles, also known as an EVSE (Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment).
A device attached to the cable from an EVSE (Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment) that connects to an electric vehicle allowing it to charge.
Direct Current – An electric current of constant direction.
DC Fast Charging
The fastest (high powered) way to charge electric vehicles quickly with an electrical output ranging from 50kW – 360kW. This will fully charge an average electric car in 30 to 40 minutes.
Electric Vehicle – Any vehicle that uses electric motors, either in full or in part, as propulsion.
Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment. A safety protocol that enables two-way communication between a charging station and electric vehicle. Basically, it controls the safe current flow between the charger and your EV.
Extended-Range Electric Vehicle. Although the electric motor of a PHEV always drives the wheels, EREVs feature an auxiliary power unit, usually an internal combustion engine, that acts as a generator to recharge the battery when it runs out.
Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle – A vehicle that uses a fuel cell, usually hydrogen-based, to generate electricity that runs an on-board motor.
Hybrid Electric Vehicle – A car that integrates a small battery and an electric motor to enhance the efficiency of the engine. The battery’s charge is maintained by the ICE (Internal Combustion Engine) engine — it cannot be charged by plugging into an electrical supply. Hybrids offer greater fuel economy than a traditional ICE, but can only travel very short distances on electric power only.
Kilowatt-hour – A unit of energy equivalent to the energy transferred or expended in one hour by one kilowatt of power. Electric car battery size is measured in kilowatt-hours, so think of it as the electric car’s equivalent of gallons of fuel in a gas tank.
This is the current standard in electric vehicle batteries, offering good energy density, power, and fast charging ability. The life of a lithium-ion battery is estimated to be the same as the life of the car (eight to ten years). Of course, ‘end of life’ here does not mean a car or its batteries won’t work – after 10 years a lithium-ion battery is expected to be 80% efficient, so they will still be usable – replacement will be a choice, not a requirement.
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle – A type of car that is configured like a traditional hybrid, but with a bigger battery pack that can be charged by plugging into an EVSE. PHEVs, as they are known, offer the chance to make short journeys on cheap, zero emission electricity, but also enable long journeys.
A vehicle powered solely by electric motors using power provided by the on-board batteries.
The distance you can travel on pure electric power before the battery requires a recharge.
This refers to the anxious feeling of operating an electric vehicle with the fear of running out of battery charge while driving.
An energy recovery system used in most electric vehicles that can help charge the battery while the car is slowing down. Typically the electric motor acts as the generator, so power can flow both ways between it and the battery. ‘Regen’ helps extend the range, while the process also helps slow the vehicle in a similar way to engine braking in an ICE powered car.
Enhanced Version Of Type 2 Plug
The CCS plug is an enhanced version of the type 2 plug, with two additional power contacts for the purposes of quick charging. It supports AC and DC charging power levels (alternating and direct current charging power levels) of up to 170 kW. In practice, the value is usually around 50 kW.
Type 2 Plug
3-phase plug. In private spaces, charging power levels of up to 22 kW are common, while charging power levels of up to 43 kW (400 V, 63 A, AC) can be used at public charging stations. Most public charging stations are equipped with a type 2 socket. All mode 3 charging cables can be used with this, and electric cars can be charged with both type 1 and type 2 plugs. All mode 3 cables on the sides of charging stations have so-called Mennekes plugs (type 2).
For its supercharger, Tesla uses a modified version of the type 2 Mennekes plug. This allows for the Model S to recharge to 80% within 30 minutes.
The twisting force that causes rotation. In cars, torque rules and is the major factor in a car’s accelerative ability. Petrol and diesel engines deliver torque over a curve as RPM increases, meaning they have peak power at a given RPM. Electric motors, on the other hand, deliver maximum torque from zero revs, meaning acceleration from standstill can be phenomenal.
Utility Rate (TOU)
Utility rates vary according to high- and low-peak use hours. Thus the rate charged to an EV customer is based not only on the total electricity used, but also upon the time of day the energy was drawn.
Level 1 Charging (Slow)
On-site circuit/outlet delivers 110-120V of alternating current. Typically, a “cord set” is used to connect to a 120V wall outlet at 15, 20 or 30 amps, which usually comes with the EV. The output to the vehicle is AC current. Cord sets provide a way of charging while at home or away on a trip where a quicker-charging Level 2 unit is not available. The low power flow leads to long recharge times. Due to this long recharge time, a large majority of electric vehicle owners will install and use a higher power Level 2 unit.
Level 2 Charging (Fast)
Level 2 supplies 240V, like what an electric dryer or oven uses. It goes through a box and a cord that improves safety by waiting to send power to the plug until it’s plugged into an EV.
Zero Emission Vehicle – A vehicle that emits no tailpipe pollutants from the onboard source of power. Harmful pollutants to health and the environment includes particulates (soot), hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, ozone, lead, and various oxides of nitrogen. A popular example of a ZEV is Tesla Model S.